Sex Hormones

Sex hormones, also known as gonadal steroids or gonadocorticoids, are steroid hormones that interact with steroid hormone receptors. The sex hormones include the androgens, estrogens, and progestogens of which Sanzyme supplies female sex hormones namely Progesterone and Hydroxy Progesterone Caproate & male sex hormone namely Testosterone undecanoate.


Progesterone often referred to as the “hormone of pregnancy” is a steroid hormone belonging to a class of hormones called progestogens. It is secreted by the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine gland that the female body produces after ovulation during the second half of the menstrual cycle.

Progesterone prepares the endometrium for the potential of pregnancy after ovulation by converting the endometrium to its secretory stage to prepare the uterus for implantation. At the same time progesterone affects the vaginal epithelium and cervical mucus, making it thick and impenetrable to sperm. It triggers the lining to thicken to accept a fertilized egg. It also prohibits the muscle contractions in the uterus that would cause the body to reject an egg. If the body does conceive, progesterone continues to stimulate the body to provide the blood vessels in the endometrium that will feed the growing fetus. Once the placenta develops, it also begins to secrete progesterone, supporting the corpus luteum.

During implantation and gestation, progesterone appears to decrease the maternal immune response to allow for the acceptance of the pregnancy. Progesterone is used in women to support pregnancy and has been shown to prevent miscarriage in women with vaginal bleeding early in their current pregnancy and a previous history of miscarriage.

Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate

Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is a synthetic progestin, also known as 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, is closer to progesterone in terms of structure and pharmacology than most other progestins, and is essentially a pure progestogen – that is, a selective agonist of the progesterone receptor (PR) with minimal or no other hormonal activity. However, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has improved pharmacokinetics compared to progesterone, namely a much longer duration with intramuscular injection in oil solution. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate decreases contractility of the uterine smooth muscle. This effect contributes to prevention of preterm labor. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is indicated to reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with a singleton pregnancy who have a history of singleton spontaneous preterm birth.

Testosterone Undecanoate

Testosterone is a male sex hormone that plays important roles in the body. The testes (testicles) make testosterone. Testosterone is a hormone that is responsible for many of the physical characteristics specific to adult males. It is thought to regulate sex drive (libido), bone mass, fat distribution, muscle mass and strength, and the production of red blood cells and sperm. It plays a key role in normal reproduction.

Testosterone undecanoate is an ester of the naturally occurring androgen, testosterone. The active form, testosterone, is formed by cleavage of the side chain. Testosterone undecanoate is used for Testosterone replacement in primary and secondary male hypogonadism.